Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that images a sample by scanning it with a high-energy beam of electrons in a raster scan pattern. The electrons interact with the atoms that make up the sample producing signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography, composition, and other properties such as electrical conductivity In pharma, typical magnification levels for surface defect evaluation are from 100 to 4,000.